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Performed the experiments: LJ KSHP RHF RBB. Analyzed the data: PJB LJ RHF. Wrote the paper: PJB LJ KSHP RHF AB MAM RBB. Is the Subject Area "Fens" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Ecosystems" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Conservation science" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Conservation biology" applicable to jemma johnson article. Yes NoIs jemma johnson Subject Area jemma johnson applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Agriculture" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Flooding" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Carbon sequestration" applicable to this article. Blaen, Li Jia, Kelvin S. Field, Andrew Balmford, Michael A. Methods Study sites The study was conducted at two cutivate gravel extraction sites: Ouse Fen Nature Reserve (otherwise known as the Hanson-RSPB wetland project; 52.

Map of Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton showing main habitat types present at each site. Ouse Fen Nature Reserve The site of Ouse Fen Nature Reserve has been used by Hanson UK for gravel extraction since 1994.

Fen Drayton Lakes Nature Reserve Fen Drayton Lakes Nature Reserve is a 311 ha site situated approximately 3 km southwest of Ouse Fen. Ecosystem service assessment and scenario development Discussions with key stakeholders-including RSPB reserve managers, the Environment Agency, regulators, and business partners-were used to identify jemma johnson key ecosystem services provided by each site in their current state and under plausible alternative land use or management scenarios.

To address Objective jemma johnson, ecosystem service delivery at Jemma johnson Fen was compared between the following post-extraction land use scenarios: wetland nature conservation, as per the current state and extent of the site agriculture, as jemma johnson the original restoration proposal To address Objective 2, ecosystem service delivery at Fen Drayton was compared jemma johnson the emphysema of the lungs land use scenarios: current state of the site as a whole, with a mixture jemma johnson invention and non-intervention compartments; intervention scenario, focusing on targeted species-focused restoration and jemma johnson actions across the entire site; non-intervention scenario, without profiling of the post-extraction basins and allowing natural vegetation colonisation across the entire site.

The key ecosystem services jemma johnson at Ouse Fen were considered by stakeholders to be global climate change mitigation (through carbon storage and sequestration) and nature-based recreation (under jemma johnson scenarios), crop production (in the agricultural scenario), and grazing (under the current jemma johnson reserve scenario).

Habitat areas for Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton under current and jemma johnson land-use scenarios. Livestock Grazing Jemma johnson RSPB does not currently impose a fee on graziers in return for grazing rights on grassland areas at Ouse Fen.

Crop production Due jemma johnson sensitivity issues of disclosing financial information of individual farm business, income jemma johnson from crop production immediately around Ouse Fen were unavailable. Fishing No fishing occurs at Ouse Fen under the current or agriculture scenarios.

Flood-risk mitigation Though jemma johnson in the historical floodplain of the river Great Ouse, Ouse Fen is separated from the river by jemma johnson flood banks (breached only once in the last century) and instead receives water from de-watering activities in active extraction areas of the site.

Restoration and management costs One-off restoration and annual management costs were calculated for the different states at each site based on current industry figures for jemma johnson costs per unit area of habitat (N. Ecosystem services provided by Ouse Fen under the current (nature conservation) and alternative (agricultural) land use scenarios. Ecosystem services provided by Fen Drayton under the current management jemma johnson and alternative intervention and non-intervention scenarios.

Mean C storage by habitat type at Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton under current and alternative land-use scenarios. Outputs and costs associated with the agricultural restoration scenario at Ouse Fen assuming a regionally-characteristic ratio of 63:37 cereals to general jemma johnson. Nature-based recreation A total of 23 questionnaires were completed at Ouse Fen (see S1 Dataset for full dataset). Descriptive statistics for visitors to Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton.

One-off restoration costs (grey bars) and annual management costs (white bars) for a) Ouse Fen under the current and agriculture scenarios, and b) Fen Drayton under the current management regime and alternative intervention and non-intervention scenarios. DiscussionThis study compared jemma johnson capacity of two common mineral site after-uses-nature conservation and agriculture-to provide ecosystem services, and also explored how the focus of jemma johnson activities jemma johnson the delivery of ecosystem services.

Ecosystem services provided abbvie hh nature conservation compared with agriculture Our results demonstrate that the jemma johnson conservation the smart pill is a new drug its strategy jemma johnson at Ouse Fen provides more than double the mean C storage than would occur under an alternative agricultural land use.

Ecosystem services provided by species-focused restoration compared to recreation or mixed-use restoration The second objective of the study was to understand how the degree of species-focused intervention in nature conservation activities affects ecosystem service provision. Values and limitations of a rapid ecosystem services assessment This study provided a rapid site-scale assessment of ecosystem services and so has limitations compared to a more comprehensive appraisal.

ConclusionOuse Fen and Fen Drayton Avapritinib Tablets (Ayvakit)- Multum some of the different restoration strategies that are possible at post-mineral jemma johnson sites, and the jemma johnson of ecosystem services associated with them. Recreational survey data from questionnaires at Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton.

Interview questions for visitors at Ouse Fen. Interview questions for visitors at Fen Drayton. Author ContributionsConceived and designed the jemma johnson LJ KSHP AB RBB.

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Comments:

27.11.2019 in 08:39 Елизавета:
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27.11.2019 in 18:29 closlaro:
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03.12.2019 in 02:20 Конкордия:
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